Oxford Current English Translation Ex 237 & 238 Solution

Oxford Current English Translation Ex 237 & 238 Solution



Narration Direct & Indirect Speech Basic Points, Changing Rules, Examples & Exercise Solution

Basic Points of Direct & Indirect Speech
Reporting Verb : Inverted commas के बाहर एक वाक्य रहता है । इस वाक्य के Verb को Reporting Verb कहते हैं । जैसे  He said, ” i am ready. ” यहाँ  ( Said )  Reporting Verb है ।Reported Speech : Inverted comma के भीतर जो वाक्य रहता है उसे Reported Speech कहते हैं ।  जैसे  He said, ” i am ready. ”  यहाँ  i am ready.  Reported Speech है ।

Verb of the Reported Speech-Inverted comma के भीतर जो वाक्य रहता है उसे Reported Speech कहते हैं । और उसमें प्रयुक्त Verb form को Verb of the Reported Speech कहते हैं । जैसे  He said, ” i am ready. ”  यहाँ  Am Verb of the Reported Speech है ।

Most Important Changing Points of Direct & Indirect Speech.

Direct Speech को Indirect Speech मे बदलने के लिए कुछ “General Rules” हैं और कुछ “Special Rules”
General Rules उन नियमो को कहते हैं जो प्रत्येक प्रकार के वाक्य के साथ लागू होते हैं परंंतु वहीं Special Rules विभिन्न प्रकार के वाक्यों के लिए भिन्न भिन्न होते हैं ।

Changing General Rules of Direct & Indirect Speech.

General Rules को हम तीन भागों में इस प्रकार बाँट सकते हैं

1. Change of Person
2. Change of Tense
3. Change of Other Parts of Speech

Rule 1 [ Change of Person ] :

Direct Speech  को  Indirect Speech में बदलने पर Inverted Commas [ ”  “ ] के भीतर जितने भी Person ( First, Second & Third ) रहते हैं वे सब इस नियम के अनुसार बदल जाते हैं ।

1. First Person ( i, me, my, mine, We, us, Our, ours ) Reporting Verb के Subject के अनुसार बदलते हैं ।

2. Second Person ( you, your, yours ) Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार बदलते हैं ।

3. Third Person ( He, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs ) ( No change ) नहीं बदलते हैं ।

Note :यदि Reporting Verb Present Tense या फिर Future Tense मे रहे, तो निम्नलिखित प्रकार से Direct Speech को Indirect Speech मे बदलते हैं ।

Reporting Verb के बाद Object रहने पर इस प्रकार से Reporting Verb को बदलते हैं ।

Say       tell
Says     tells
Has/have said      has/have told
Will/shall tell        Will/shall tell

Note : यदि Reporting Verb के बाद Object नहीं रहे, तो Reporting Verb मे परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है । तब उसे वैसा ही लिखा जाता है । जैसे

Say         Say
Says      Says
Has/have said     Has/have said
Will/shall tell       Will/shall tell

Reporting Verb के बाद प्रयुक्त  to  को हटा ( लुप्त ) देते हैं

Inverted Comma के स्थान पर  that  लगाते हैं ।  तथा Inverted Comma को लुप्त कर देते हैं ।

Note : जब Reporting Verb Present/Future Tense मे रहता है, तब Indirect Speech मे कहीं भी Tense मे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है ।  उसे वैसे ही लिखा जाता है ।

Person Changing Table of Direct to Indirect Speech.

इस table की सहायता से आप ” Persons ” को Indirect Speech मे easily change कर सकते हैं ।।  इस table का use पुरे Narration मे होता है और प्रत्येक Sentence मे इस table का यूज होता हैं । So आप इस table को ध्यान से देखे ।

यहाँ सभी Persons का  विभिन्न forms  दिए गए हैं ।। किस Person का रूप Subject मे क्या होता है ।  Object मे क्या होता है । Possessive Adjective मे तथा Possessive Pronoun मे क्या होता है । ये सभी दिए गए हैं । इसलिए आप इस table को याद कर लें ।

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro 

I           |       I       |    Me    |     My       |    Mine

We      |     We     |    us     |     Our      |    Ours

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro

You      |    You    |   You    |     Your    |    Yours

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro

He       |     He     |   Him   |      His       |     His
Boy     |     He     |   Him   |      His       |     His
Ram    |     He     |   Him   |      His       |     His

She     |    She    |    her    |      her       |    hers
girl     |    She     |   her    |      her       |    hers
Sita    |    She     |   her     |      her       |    hers

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro

They   |   They   |  Them  |    Their    |    Thers
Boys   |   They    |  Them  |    Their    |    Thers

इस Table को Example के द्वारा समझे ।

Direct Speech : He says to me, ” i am your friend. ”

Indirect Speech : He tells me that he is my friend.

यहाँ इस Sentence में  i  के बदले  he  और  Your  के बदले  my  का प्रयोग किया गया है, इसे ध्यान से समझे ।

I  first person है । और यह Subject ( He ) के अनुसार change होगा ।

I  इस वाक्य का Subject है । इसलिए आपको table मे he का subject देखना होगा कि क्या है ।  और table मे he का subject he है इसलिए वहां he लगाया गया है ।

और he के साथ is लगता है am नहीं, इसलिए is लगाया गया है ।

और इस वाक्य मे  Your  Second Person है ।।  तथा यह Object ( me ) के अनुसार change होगा ।

Your Table मे Possessive Adjective है ।।।  इसलिए आपको me का Possessive Adjective my को your के स्थान पर लिखना होगा ।

Note : Inverted Comma के अंदर जो Persons होते हैं, उन्हें change किया जाता है ।।। और Inverted Comma के बाहर जो Person होते हैं उन्हें Change नहीं किया जाता है ।

इस प्रकार आप सभी Sentences को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech मे change कर सकते हैं ।

Exercise 237 Solution of Oxford Current English Translation book by R.k Sinha.

Translate into English ( First in Direct speech & then in Indirect speech )
वह कहता है कि मै तैयार हूँ ।
Direct speech : He says,” I am ready.”
Indirect speech : He says that he is ready.
इसी प्रकार नीचे सभी Sentences हैं, पहला अनुवाद किया हुआ Direct speech में है और दूसरा अनुवाद किया हुआ Indirect speech में है ।
वह कहती है कि मै तैयार हूँ ।
She says,” I am ready.”
She says that he is ready.
तुम कहते हो कि मै दोषी नहीं हूँ ।
You say,” I am not guilty.”
You say that you are not guilty.
राम कहता है कि मै एक किसान हूँ ।
Ram says,” I am a farmer.
Ram says that he is a farmer.
रीता कहती है कि मै अंग्रेजी जानती हूँ ।
Reeta says,” I know english.”
Reeta says that She knows english.
वह कहती है कि मै पढ रही हूँ ।
She says,” I am reading.”
She says that She is reading.
वे लोग कहते हैं कि हमलोग भूखें हैं ।
They say,” We are hungry.”
They say that they are hungry.
राम कहता है कि मै वहाँ नहीं गया ।
Ram says,” I did not go there.”
Ram says that he did not go there.
वह कहती है कि मै स्कूल जाऊँगी ।
She says,” I shall go to school.”
She says that She will go to school.
गीता कहती है कि मैनें पढ लिया है ।
Geeta says,” I have read.”
Geeta says that She has ready.
वे लोग कहते हैं कि हमलोग खेल रहे थें ।
They say,” We were playing.”
They say that they were playing.
रहीम कहता है कि मै अंग्रेजी पढ सकता हूँ ।
Rahim says,” I can read english.”
Rahim says that he can read english.
वह कहती है कि मै भारत में रहती हूँ ।
She says,” I live in india.”
She says that she lives in india.
वे कहते हैं कि हमलोग कल जाएँगे ।
They say,” We shall go tomorrow.”
They say that they will go tomorrow.
मै कहता हूँ कि मैंने उसे नहीं पीटा है ।
I say,” I have not beaten him.”
I say that I have not beaten him.
वह मुझसे कहता है कि मै तुम्हारा पड़ोसी हूँ ।
He says to me,” I am your neighbour.”
He tells me that he is my neighbour.
वह मुझसे कहती है कि मै तुम्हें जानती हूँ ।
She says to me,” I know you.”
She tells me that She knows me.
राम सीता से कहता है कि मै तुम्हें जानता हूँ ।
Ram says to sita,” I know you.”
Ram tells sita that he knows her.
सीता राम से कहती है कि मै तुम्हें जानती हूँ ।
Sita says to Ram,” I know you.”
Sita tells Ram that She knows him.
वह मुझसे कहता है कि मै तुम्हारी मदद कर सकता हूँ ।
He says to me,” I can help you.”
He tells me that he can help me.
राम मुझसे कहता है कि सीता तुम्हारी बहन नहीं है ।
Ram says to me,” Sita is not your sister.”
Ram tells me that Sita is not my sister.
वह मुझसे कहती है कि मै तुमसे प्यार करती हूँ ।
She says to me,” I love you.”
She tells me that she loves me.
वह मुझसे कहता है कि मै तुम्हें पढाऊँगा ।
He says to me,” I shall teach you.”
He tells me that he will teach me.
वह कहेगा कि मै तैयार हूँ ।
He will say,” I am ready.”
He will say that he is ready.
वह मुझसे कहेगा कि मै तुम्हारे लिए तैयार हूँ ।
He will say to me,” I am ready for you.”
He will tell me that he is ready for you.
वे लोग मुझसे कहते हैं कि हमलोग आपके दोस्त हैं ।
They say to me,” We are your friends.”
They tell me that they are my friends.
मै उनलोगों से कहता हूँ कि मै आपलोगों का दोस्त हूँ ।
I say to them,” I am your friend.”
I tell them that I am their friend.
वह कहता है कि मै उसका दोस्त नहीं हूँ ।
He says,” I am not his friend.”
He says that he is not his friend.

Exercise 238 Solution of Oxford Current English Translation book by R.k Sinha.

Translate into English using Indirect form of speech
इस Exercise को Book में केवल “Indirect speech” में बनाने को कहा गया है । हमने Direct और Indirect दोनो में बना दिया है ताकि आपको समझने में आसानी हो सकें ।। Book के अनुसार यह Exercise केवल Indirect speech मे बनेगा
वह कहता है कि मै भूखा हूँ ।
Direct speech : He says,” I am hungry.”
Indirect speech : He says that he is hungry.
वह कहती है कि मै सुन्दर हूँ ।
She says,” I am beautiful.”
She says that She is beautiful.
राज कहता है कि मै एक गायक हूँ ।
Raj says,” I am a singer.”
Raj says that he is a singer.
रीता कहती है कि मै एक नर्तकी थी ।
Reeta says,” I was a dancer.”
Reeta says that she was a dancer.
वे लोग कहते हैं कि हमलोग काम कर रहे हैं ।
They say,” We are working.”
They say that they are working.
लड़के कहते हैं कि हमलोग खेलनेवाले हैं ।
The boys say,” We are to play.”
The boys say that they are to play.
राम कहता है कि मै वहाँ नहीं गया ।
Ram says,” I did not go there.”
Ram says that he did not go there.
शारदा कहती है कि मै कल स्कूल नहीं जाऊँगी ।
Sharda says,” I shall not go to school tomorrow.”
Sharda says that she will not go to school tomorrow.
मोहन कहता है कि मेरे पास एक कार है ।
Mohan says,” I have a car.”
Mohan says that he has a car.
राधा कहती है कि मै इस काम को कर सकती हूँ ।
Radha says,” I can do this work.”
Radha says that she can do this work.
वह मुझसे कहता है कि मैंने तुम्हें गाली नहीं दी ।
He says to me,” I did not abuse you.”
He tells me that he did not abuse me.
राम मुझसे कहता है कि मै तुम्हारा दोस्त हूँ ।
Ram says to me,” I am your friend.”
Ram tells me that he is my friend.
रीता मुझसे कहती है कि मै तुमसे प्यार करती हूँ ।
Reeta says to me,” I love you.”
Reeta tells me that she loves me.
वह मुझसे कहता है कि मै तुम्हारी मदद करूँगा ।
He says to me,” I shall help you.”
He tells me that he will help me.
वे लोग मुझसे कहेंगे कि हम आपके लिए तैयार हैं ।
They will say to me,” We are ready for you.”
They will tell me that they are ready for me.


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