Change Direct to Indirect Speech Narration Part 1 of Oxford Grammar by R.k Sinha

Change Direct to Indirect Speech Narration Part 1 of Oxford Grammar by R.k Sinha



How to Change Direct to indirect Speech Narration and it’s Rules, Examples & Exercise solution.

Full Explain of Narration

Note : Narration बनाने से पहले इसके Basic Points और इनके Rules को जानना और समझना अतिआवश्यक है । क्योंकि बिना इसके Basic Points & Rules को जाने आप Narration को नहीं बना सकते हैं ।  so एक बार आप इसके Basic Point और इनके Rule अच्छी तरह समझ जायेंगे,

फिर आपके लिए  “Narration”  बनाना बहुत ही आसान हो जायेगा । So आप पहले इनके Basic Point और फिर इनके Rules को अच्छी तरह से समझे, और फिर इनके Exercise को बनाना Start करें । तो फिर चलिए Step by Step इनके Basic Point & Rules को समझते हैं ।

Narration : कथन

Narration को हिंदी मे “कथन” कहा जाता है ।

There are two types of Narration : कथन दो प्रकार के होते हैं ।

1. Direct Speech
2. Indirect Speech

Direct Speech : जब वक्ता के “कथन” को उसी के शब्दों मे व्यक्त किया जाता है तब वह Direct Speech कहलाता है । जैसे

He says to me, ” i am your friend. ”

Indirect Speech : जब वक्ता के कथन को उसी के शब्दों मे न कहकर उसके सारांश या आशय को अपने शब्दों मे व्यक्त किया जाता है तब वह Indirect Speech कहलाता है । जैसे

He tells me that he is my friend.

Some Basics Important Points of Direct & Indirect Speech.

Reporting Verb : Inverted commas के बाहर एक वाक्य रहता है । इस वाक्य के Verb को Reporting Verb कहते हैं । जैसे  He said, ” i am ready. ” यहाँ  ( Said )  Reporting Verb है ।

Reported Speech : Inverted comma के भीतर जो वाक्य रहता है उसे Reported Speech कहते हैं ।  जैसे  He said, ” i am ready. ”  यहाँ  i am ready.  Reported Speech है ।

Verb of the Reported Speech-Inverted comma के भीतर जो वाक्य रहता है उसे Reported Speech कहते हैं । और उसमें प्रयुक्त Verb form को Verb of the Reported Speech कहते हैं । जैसे  He said, ” i am ready. ”  यहाँ  Am Verb of the Reported Speech है ।

Most Important Changing Points of Direct & Indirect Speech.

Direct Speech को Indirect Speech मे बदलने के लिए कुछ “General Rules” हैं और कुछ “Special Rules”
General Rules उन नियमो को कहते हैं जो प्रत्येक प्रकार के वाक्य के साथ लागू होते हैं परंंतु वहीं Special Rules विभिन्न प्रकार के वाक्यों के लिए भिन्न भिन्न होते हैं ।

Changing General Rules of Direct & Indirect Speech.

General Rules को हम तीन भागों में इस प्रकार बाँट सकते हैं

1. Change of Person
2. Change of Tense
3. Change of Other Parts of Speech

Change of Person :

Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में बदलने पर Inverted Commas [ ”  “ ] के भीतर जितने भी Person ( First, Second & Third ) रहते हैं वे सब इस नियम के अनुसार बदल जाते हैं ।

1. First Person ( i, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours ) Reporting Verb के Subject के अनुसार बदलते हैं ।

2. Second Person ( you, your, yours ) Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार बदलते हैं ।

3. Third Person ( He, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs ) ( No change ) नहीं बदलते हैं ।

Direct to Indirect Speech Changing Rules – 1 of Oxford Current English Grammar book by R.k Sinha.

Rules 1

यदि Reporting Verb – Present Tense या Future Tense मे रहे, तो निम्नलिखित प्रकार से Direct Speech को Indirect Speech मे बदलते हैं ।

Reporting Verb के बाद Object रहने पर इस प्रकार Reporting Verb को बदलते हैं ।

Say       tell
Says     tells
Has/have said.      has/have told
Will/shall tell      Will/shall tell

Note : यदि Reporting Verb के बाद Object नहीं रहे, तो Reporting Verb मे परिवर्तन नहीं किया जाता है । तब उसे वैसा ही लिखा जाता है । जैसे

Say.    Say
Says.     Says
Has/have said.     Has/have said.
Will/shall tell      Will/shall tell

Reporting Verb के बाद प्रयुक्त  to  को हटा ( लुप्त ) देते हैं

Inverted Comma के स्थान पर  that  देते हैं ।  तथा Inverted Comma को लुप्त कर देते हैं ।

Note : जब Reporting Verb Present/Future Tense मे रहता है, तब Indirect Speech मे कहीं भी Tense मे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है ।  उसे वैसे ही लिखा जाता है ।

Person Changing Table of Direct to Indirect Speech.

इस table की सहायता से आप “Persons” को Indirect Speech मे easily change कर सकते हैं । इस table का use पुरे Narration मे होता है और प्रत्येक Sentence मे इस table का यूज होता हैं । So आप इस table को ध्यान से देखे ।

यहाँ सभी Persons का  विभिन्न forms  दिए गए हैं । किस Person का रूप Subject मे क्या होता है Object मे क्या होता है । Possessive Adjective मे तथा Possessive Pronoun  मे क्या होता है । ये सभी दिए गए हैं । इसलिए आप इस table को याद कर लें ।

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro 

I           |       I       |    Me    |     My       |   Mine

We      |     We     |    us     |     Our      |   Ours

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro

You     |    You    |   You    |     Your    |   Yours

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro

He       |     He     |   Him   |      His       |    His
Boy     |     He     |   Him   |      His       |    His
Ram    |     He     |   Him   |      His       |    His

She     |    She    |    her    |      her       |   hers
girl     |    She     |   her    |      her       |   hers
Sita    |    She     |   her    |      her       |   hers

Person| Subject | Object | Poss. Adj | Poss. Pro

They   |   They   |  Them  |    Their    |   Thers
Boys   |   They   |  Them  |    Their    |   Thers

इस table को Example के द्वारा समझे ।

Direct Speech

He says to me, ” i am your friend. ”

Indirect Speech

He tells me that he is my friend.

यहाँ इस Sentence में  i  के बदले  he  और  Your  के बदले  my  का प्रयोग किया गया है, इसे ध्यान से समझे ।

I  first person है । और यह Subject ( He ) के अनुसार change होगा ।

I  इस वाक्य का Subject है । इसलिए आपको table मे he का subject देखना होगा कि क्या है ।  और table मे he का subject he है इसलिए वहां he लगाया गया है ।

और he के साथ is लगता है am नहीं, इसलिए is लगाया गया है ।

और इस वाक्य मे Your Second Person है ।  तथा यह Object ( me ) के अनुसार change होगा ।

Your table मे Possessive Adjective है ।  इसलिए आपको me का Possessive Adjective my को your के स्थान पर लिखना होगा ।

Note : Inverted Comma के अंदर जो Persons होते हैं, उन्हें change किया जाता है । और Inverted Comma के बाहर जो Person होते हैं उन्हें Change नहीं किया जाता है ।

इस प्रकार आप सभी Sentence को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech मे change कर सकते हैं ।

Direct to Indirect Speech Exercise 73 Solution of Oxford Current English Grammar by R.k Sinha.

Change Direct Speech Sentences to Indirect Speech easily.

1. He says, ” i am reading my book. ”
He says that he is reading his book.

2. She says, ” i am reading my book. ”
She says that she is reading her book.

3. You say, ” i am reading my book. ”
You say that you are reading your book.

4. They say, ” we are reading our books. ”
The say that they are reading their books.

5. Ram says to me, ” i help you. ”
Ram tells me that he helps me.

6. i say to Ram, ” i help you. ”
i tell Ram that i help him.

7. Ram says to lata, ” i help you. ”
Ram tells lata that he helps her.

8. Lata says to Ram, ” i help you. ”
Lata tells Ram that she helps him.

9. They say to us, ” we help you. ”
They tell us that they help us.

10. He says to me, ” i am your friend. ”
He tells me that he is my friend.

11. She says to them, ” i am your friend. ”
She tells them that she is their friend.

12. i say to her, ” i am your friend. ”
i tell her that i am her friend.

13. Mohan says to geeta, ” i am your friend and you are my friend. ”
Mohan tells geeta that he is her friend and she is his friend.

14. The boys say to me, ” we have no money for you. ”
The boys tell me that they have no money for me.

15. i say to them, ” i have love for you. ”
i tell them that i have love for them.

16. Ram says to meena, ” i help you because you help me. ”
Ram tells meena that he helps her because she helps him.

17. They say to her, ” we wanted to help you. ”
They tell her that they wanted to help her.

18. She says to the boys, ” you can’t defeat me. ”
She tells the boys that they can’t defeat her.

19. She will tell me, ” i am ready to help you. ”
She will tell me that she is ready to help me.

20. She will tell the girls, ” i have always supported you. ”
She will tell the girls that she has always supported them

21. He has said to them, ” i can’t care for you. ”
He has told them that he can’t care for them.

22. They say to me, ” you must obey us. ”
They tell me that i must obey them.

23. i say to them, ” you must obey me. ”
i tell them that they must obey me.

24. Ganesh says to Reena, ” i need your pen. ”
Ganesh tells Reena that he needs her pen.

25. Reena says to ganesh, ” i need you pen. ”
Reena tells to ganesh that she needs his pen.

Direct to Indirect Speech Exercise 74 Solution of Oxford Current English Grammar by R.k Sinha.

Change Direct to Indirect Speech Correctly

1. He says to me, ” i shall help you if you help me. ”
He tells me that he will help me if i help him.

2. She says to us, ”  i shall help you if you help me. ”
She tells us that she will help us if we help her.

3. Ram says to Sita, ”  i shall help you if you help me. ”
Ram tells Sita that he will help her if she helps him.

4. Radha says to Ganesh, ” i like you because you have always helped me. ”
Radha tells Ganesh that she likes him because he has always helped her.

5. Imran says to Razia, ” i want to help you because you have always helped me. ”
Imran tells Razia that he wants to help her because She has always helped him.

6. i have told them, ” you should help me. ”
i have told them that they should help me.

7. He says to me, ” i am your servant and you are my master. ”
He tells me that he is my servant and i am his master.

8. She says to him, ” i am your servant and you  are my master. ”
She tells him that she is his servant and he is her master.

9. He says to me, ” This is mine and That is yours. ”
He tells me that this is his and that is mine.

10. She says to them, ” this is mine and that is yours. ”
She tells them that this is hers and that is theirs.

11. She says to me, ” i wanted to help you but i couldn’t.
She tells me that she wanted to help me but she couldn’t.

12. The workers say to the owner, ” you can’t do without us. ”
The workers tell the owner that he can’t do without them.

13. He will say to me, ” i am your neighbour and so you should help me. ”
He will tell me that he is my neighbour and so i should help him.

15. He says to me, ” i know you and your family very well but you don’t know me at all. ”
He tells me that he knows me and my family very well but i don’t know him at all.

16. She says to me, ” i have been waiting for you since morning. ”
She tells me that she has been waiting for me since morning.

17. He says to me, ” i was reading while you were playing. ”
He tells me that he was reading while i was playing.

18. She says to him, ” i shall be your true friend. ”
She tells him that she will be his true friend.

19. He says to me, ” She helps me. ”
He tells me that she helps him.

20. The farmers say to me, ” we never quarrel with them. ”
The farmers tell me that they never quarrel with them.



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